Esquire: This is what studying the wildlife trade has taught me about the spread of disease
We've been studying the wildlife trade for more than a decade, WCS's Christian Walzer tells the magazine, and we've just learned that as you follow a rat from the field to a market and then into a restaurant, there’s an increase in coronaviruses.
Germany's Federal Environment Ministry hosted a high-level discussion on addressing the various causes of the transmission and spread of zoonoses, including pandemics. WCS's Susan Lieberman, Vice President, International Policy, was a panelist.
WCS Country Director Sangeeta Mangubhai spoke on fisheries and COVID-19 and what Fiji's response should be post pandemic.
June 26, 2020
Congressional Quarterly: Can future pandemics be prevented?
There is clear evidence that wildlife markets have contributed to zoonotic disease epidemics such as SARS, says WCS's Susan Lieberman. “Do we spend years investigating which might be the next one?" she asks. "Or do we say we can't accept any risk of this happening again? … If we stop the commercial markets where people eat wildlife, the chances of this happening again are infinitesimal.”
What: Live panel discussion hosted by Germany's Federal Environment Ministry featuring WCS's Susan Lieberman When: Monday, June 29 from 9:30-11:30 am ET Where: Tune in live at this link—https://www.bmu.de/en/livestream/
Germany's Federal Environment Ministry is committed to working with its international partners to address the various causes of the transmission and spread of zoonoses, including pandemics. WCS's Susan Lieberman, Vice President, International Policy, joins this high-level discussion to understand these better and work together to prevent these kinds of crises through internationally coordinated measures for the future.
June 24, 2020
The Independent: Risk of coronaviruses increases as wildlife moves from farms to restaurants, study finds
“It was a bit of a surprise," WCS's Sarah H. Olson tells the paper, "when I started crunching the data and saw just how significant the amplification process was.”
ABC News (Australia): WCS's Amanda Fine on how coronavirus has placed more attention on the wildlife trade
June 22, 2020
The New York Times: Wildlife trade spreads coronaviruses as animals get to markets
A study of the wildlife trade in 3 provinces in southern Vietnam, co-authored by WCS, produced startlingly clear confirmation for one of the underlying objections to the wildlife trade in Asia—the trading offers an ideal opportunity for viruses in one animal to infect another.
Animals sampled in the wildlife-trade supply chain bound for human consumption had high proportions of coronaviruses and the proportion of positives significantly increased as animals traveled from traders to large markets to restaurants, says a new study co-authored by WCS.
Wildlife in the trade supply chain are often under stress and confined at high densities with other animals from multiple sources which likely results in increased shedding of coronaviruses. The authors forewarn of the potential risk of viral spillover into people through the wildlife trade.
To reduce risk, we recommend stopping all commercial trade in wildlife for human consumption (particularly of birds and mammals) and closing all such markets.
WATCH: Links Between Commercial Trade and Consumption of Wildlife and Disease Outbreaks
WCS's Susan Lieberman was a witness at this UK Parliamentary hearing, which also considered steps the United Kingdom can take to prevent future pandemics.
June 6, 2020
Associated Press: Coronavirus Disrupts Global Fight to Save Endangered Species
In Guatemala, Indigenous communities that monitor rainforests are struggling to contain one of the worst fire seasons in two decades, reports the AP, as government firefighting resources are devoted to the pandemic.
“Tropical forests are rich in biodiversity, so we’re losing rare flora and fauna,” said Jeremy Radachowsky, WCS director for Mesoamerica. “The situation is different in every country, but reduced enforcement of environmental laws is a common concern.”
What: Global Britain panel discussion featuring WCS's Aili Kang When: June 4, 4 pm BST (11 am EST)
The alteration and destruction of our planet poses a significant threat to human health. Today at 4 pm BST (11 am EST), WCS's Aili Kang joins a virtual panel discussion on this important subject. Register and check it out.
EDITORIAL: The impact on small-scale fisheries and coastal communities
In a new piece for the journal Coastal Management, conservationists, including from WCS, document the effects the pandemic is having on this sector around the world.
"Negative consequences to date have included
complete shut-downs of some fisheries," they write, "knock-on economic effects
from market disruptions, increased health risks for fishers, processors
and communities, additional implications for marginalized groups,
exacerbated vulnerabilities to other social and environmental stressors, and increased Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing."
COMMENTARY: CITES is not the answer to preventing another pandemic
WCS's Susan Lieberman argues the only way to truly prevent something is to eliminate the root cause. In the case of zoonotic pandemics, she writes for Scientific American, we must put an end to the commercial trade in wildlife for human consumption (with exceptions for Indigenous Peoples and local communities that are dependent on wildlife consumption for their food security or cultural expression).
WCS REPORT: Links between ecological integrity and human health
Ecological degradation not only increases the overall risk of zoonotic disease outbreaks originating from wildlife, but it also has complex effects, feedback loops, and some notable
negative impacts on many other aspects of human health.
REUTERS: China legislators take on wildlife trade, but traditional medicine likely to be exempt
As China’s parliament prepares new laws to ban the trade and consumption of wildlife, local action plans published this week suggest the country’s fur trade and lucrative traditional medicine sectors will continue as usual.
“It will be important for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) experts, wildlife conservation experts, and relevant authorities to take a look at TCM-related laws and regulations to make sure they are consistent,” said WCS's Aili Kang.
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC: The future for wildlife post-COVID-19
“So far," said WCS Canada's Justina Ray, "there's really nothing that we can see at this point that would change the equation for the largest threat to species, which is cumulative habitat loss and degradation.”
For WCS's Jonathan Slaght spring was typically the end point of his yearly work studying Blakiston's fish owls, the world's largest owls, in Russia. "The thaw made river ice unsafe to walk or drive on," he writes in Scientific American, "and the sun’s renewed warmth softened the frozen mud of forest roads, making them impassable."
Not this year, though. This year, as COVID-19 tightened its grip on the planet, it became clear the expedition would leave him behind.
While the COVID-19 pandemic continues around the world, threats to Western lowland gorillas and other endangered species are surging: Poaching, mining, and deforestation have all ramped up in the midst of this crisis.
WCS has the largest anti-wildlife trafficking presence globally, with teams on the ground in nearly 30 countries. By making a gift today, you’ll be protecting the endangered species we can’t bear to lose, through this crisis and beyond. Donate by midnight and have your donation matched.
Christian Walzer of WCS's Health Programs and Pat Thomas of the Bronx Zoo participated in a discussion hosted by The Habitats Trust and Central Zoo Authority, India.
May 8, 2020
Call for a one health research coalition
In The Lancet, WCS's Christian Walzer and others emphasize that the health of our planet hinges on the symbiotic relationship between humans, animals and the environment. They call for an inclusive and transparent COVID-19 One Health Research Coalition to strengthen linkages with the evolving climate change and planetary health research community.
Dialogue on international cooperation to prevent the next pandemic
Across 25 high-risk viral families, there
are estimated to be 1.7 million unknown
viruses, WCS's Christian Walzer reported in his presentation during the Pace University School of Law event. About 700,000 of them likely have the
potential to infect humans.
Earlier this week, WCS's Susan Lieberman, Vice President, International Policy, joined the FIU Tropical Conservation Institute discussion on wildlife trade policy, including the scope of current regulations, the human component, and the future of wildlife trade.
May 6, 2020
Ethical Corporation: Human health is dependent on protecting the health of the planet
Aili Kang, Asia program director at WCS, estimates that China’s ban will cover more than 2,000 species, and she’s optimistic that it will be permanently implemented.
TRT World: Coronavirus, a warning shot from nature?
Mankind’s encroachment on the habitats of wild animals could lead to more zoonotic pandemics. WCS's Christian Walzer joins a discussion on Turkish television.
April 28, 2020
Fires in Mesoamerica
This young Guatemalan black howler monkey has lost its home. With forest rangers sheltering due to the COVID-19 crisis, fires raged uncontrolled across Mesoamerica on Earth Day last week, including in northern Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve, which WCS has worked to conserve for more than two decades. This infant monkey was discovered there in the ashes, in the community forests of San Miguel la Palotada.
The young monkey’s mother could not be found, so the baby was sent by CONAP (Guatemala National Council of Protected Areas) to the ARCAS Wildlife Rescue Center in Peten, and will require care and some growth prior to being returned to the wild.
The fires in Mesoamerica bring into focus the intersecting crises of the pandemic, climate change, and biodiversity loss. The blazes, exacerbated by drought, have released massive amounts of carbon into the atmosphere—contributing further to the climate crisis while threatening innumerable wildlife species like the young howler. What we increasingly know: the degradation of nature across the globe is driving catastrophic threats to our very survival.
Axios: Coronavirus is tied to climate and biodiversity crises
If we fail to recognize the connection, we are likely to see more difficult-to-tackle diseases jump from animals to humans, WCS's Joe Walston said in an interview. "But I believe that the world is realizing now," said Walston, "that these are environmental problems, that they are going to happen again unless we take action."
OPINION: Preventing pandemics, global warming and environmental degradation all at once
One commonality lies at the core of the current massive global challenges: the destructive relationship between humanity and the natural world, write WCS's James Watson, Lauren Oakes and Sarah Olson for CNN.
Los Angeles Review of Books: Coronavirus and conservation
According to Chris Walzer, Director of Global Health at the Wildlife Conservation Society, Amazonian creatures can be presumed to harbor just as many viruses as African and Asian animals that gave us Ebola, SARS, and COVID-19.
OPINION: China is closing its wildlife markets. Let’s make it permanent.
"The Chinese government is now leading the global community with these new regulations," WCS Regional Director Colin Poole writes for PBS Nature. "However, the real challenge lies in implementation—not today, but in years to come when a vaccine is widely available and the fear of Covid-19 is fading from memory."
COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Although COVID-positive people
can infect tigers and lions in zoos by close contact involved with caring for them, cats are not easily
infected, and SARS-CoV-2 is not known to occur in any population of any wild cat species in nature.
It is extremely unlikely that wild cats can transmit the virus that causes COVID-19 to humans
Quarantining also means caring for our great ape relatives
Gorillas and other great apes are particularly susceptible to pathogens from humans, and the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 poses a very serious risk to their survival. Protecting our closest wild relatives and closing wildlife markets for human consumption are both critical steps towards ensuring healthy futures for all, writes Elizabeth L. Bennett for IUCN.
Read Christian Walzer's full testimony from the Congressional caucus briefing
Walzer, the Executive Director of WCS's Health Programs, spoke before the bipartisan leadership of the International Conservation Caucus on wildlife trafficking, the origins of COVID-19, and preventing future pandemics.
In a single deliberate poisoning event, 3 giant ibis, equivalent to 1-2% of the global population, have been killed—part of a disturbing global trend where conservationists are noticing increases in hunting of protected species since the spread of coronavirus began to disrupt traditional economic and social systems in rural areas.
TUNE IN: Virtual briefing featuring WCS's Christian Walzer
We can prevent future pandemics by stopping all commercial trade in wildlife. Tune in tomorrow at 3 p.m. ET as WCS’s Dr. Christian Walzer speaks on this at a virtual hearing featuring the bipartisan leadership of the International Conservation Caucus. It's presented by The ICCF Group.
The New York Times: Poachers kill more rhinos as coronavirus halts tourism to Africa
“These animals are not just protected by rangers, they’re also protected by tourist presence,” said Tim Davenport, who directs species conservation programs for Africa at WCS. “If you’re a poacher, you’re not going to go to a place where there are lots of tourists, you’re going to go to a place where there are very few of them.”
The New York Times: A tiger is slightly sick with coronavirus. Your cat is probably ok.
Nadia, a Malayan tiger, is doing well, according to Dr. Paul Calle, the Bronx Zoo’s chief veterinarian. So are three other tigers and three lions that show the same symptoms. And, he said, neither Nadia’s infection nor early scientific reports from China of infections among domestic cats should make cat owners fear for their pets, or fear that the cats may pass the virus to humans.
“None of them actually ever acted terribly sick,” Dr. Calle said of the zoo’s infected cats.
BBC: Putting the spotlight on the global wildlife trade
Conservation experts say the coronavirus pandemic, which likely originated at a market selling wild animals in China, is a watershed moment for curbing the global wildlife trade, which can drive extinction and spread disease.
VIDEO: What must the world do now to prevent the next zoonotic pandemic?
WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer and Dr. Aili Kang and Dr. Russell Mittermeier of Global Wildlife Conservation spoke to reporters this morning about the crisis.
April 2, 2020
Update from WCS Congo
April 2, 2020
Voice of America: COVID-19 Infections Approach 900,000
WCS's Paul Elkan speaks about the world's most trafficked animal. "One hears about ivory being stored in containers and moved in large quantities," says Elkan. "But over the years we've found tons of pangolin scales being stockpiled and attempted to be trafficked."
What must the world do now to prevent next zoonotic pandemic?
At a tele news conference this morning, experts from WCS and Global Wildlife Conservation answered this question. You can get the highlights on our WCS Newsroom Twitter feed.
April 1, 2020
WCS's Bronx Zoo serving as staging ground
April 1, 2020
LiveScience: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced us to a new word: zoonoses
"Spillover" events, when diseases jump from wild animal hosts to human populations, are a significant and growing threat to global health, global economies, and global security, writes WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer. Analyses of their trends suggest that their frequency and economic impact are on the rise.
Euractiv: The ‘super year for biodiversity’ undermined by a wildlife market?
Conservationists have been working for many years to try and get European Union leaders and policy-makers to pay attention and take action to tackle the biodiversity crisis, writes WCS's Janice Weatherley-Singh. This year felt as if it might be the year, but this new political action on biodiversity is now being curtailed by COVID-19.
STATEMENT: WCS issues policy on reducing risk of future zoonotic pandemics
To prevent future major viral outbreaks such as the COVID-19 outbreak, impacting human health, well-being, economies, and security on a global scale, WCS recommends stopping all commercial trade in wildlife for human consumption (particularly of birds and mammals) and closing all such markets.
U.S. News: New York City’s new normal as it weathers a pandemic
"Many of our activities of course have slowed down in the field around the globe," WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer tells the magazine. But "I've probably never had as much work as I've had now," particularly as he examines the impact of coronavirus worldwide.
Sierra: China could end the global trade in wildlife
“What China is doing is very, very encouraging, in that they’re potentially taking a lead globally on policy to prevent future outbreaks,” says Scott Roberton, director of counter-wildlife trafficking for WCS’s Asia program. “This isn’t about conservation; it’s about public health.”
Food & Environment Reporting Network: Can Asia’s Infectious Disease-Producing Wildlife Trade Be Stopped?
"It’s a numbers game,” says WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer of wild animal markets. "You’re providing a lot of opportunities for human-animal interface, with a high diversity of species with unknown viruses mixing with each other.”
"Chinese people don’t want to touch any wild animal food at the moment," adds Dr. Aili Kang, "so the traders have no market."
"Some 60% of emerging infectious diseases that are reported globally are zoonoses," report WCS's Amanda Fine and Aili Kang, "and of the more than 30 new human pathogens detected in the last three decades, 75% have originated in animals."
"The Wildlife Conservation Society is dedicated to carrying on with our important work—thanks to your steadfast support," says WCS President and CEO Cristián Samper. "Our community is strong, and we will get through this together."
Guessing we could all use a bit of zen right now. We posted a video of gentoo penguins returning to shore along the coast of South America. Post your own with #WildlifeZen and help us spread some good cheer.
March 16, 2020
Emerging Zoonoses and the Risk Posed by Wildlife Markets
"Facing such a vast, unknown and unpredictable universe of zoonotic agents," write WCS's Amanda Fine and Aili Kang on Medium, "we firmly believe that limiting the chances of contact between human and wild animals is the most effective way to reduce the risk of emergence of new zoonotic diseases."
Temporary Closure of WCS's Four Zoos and Aquarium in New York City Beginning Monday, March 16, 2020
The Wildlife Conservation Society is temporarily closing the Bronx Zoo, Central Park Zoo, Prospect Park Zoo, Queens Zoo and New York Aquarium, effective Monday, March 16. Our five parks will be closed and education and public programs will be cancelled until further notice.
This action is being taken as city and state leaders have called on businesses to voluntarily close to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19; and following declarations of states of emergency in the United States, New York State, and New York City.
Mongabay: Conservationists Set Record Straight on COVID-19's Wildlife Links
“It’s just a numbers game,” WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer said of markets that trade in wildlife. “If you just put enough species together and allow them to share viruses and then put a lot of people in contact with the animals and their parts, then you just invariably will have a virus that can enter a human cell and replicate and, in rarer occasions, transmit from human to human.”
STATEMENT: Viet Nam prime minister proposes a ban on trade and consumption of wildlife
“We commend Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc for his leadership in taking this important first step. We hope this directive will stipulate the required actions to remove high-risk interfaces along the wildlife trade supply chain where viruses can emerge by putting in place measures to prohibit the trade, consumption, breeding and keeping of wild animals whether wild caught or captive bred in Viet Nam.”
“We strongly support Viet Nam in taking all necessary steps to prevent future zoonotic pathogen transmissions that could lead to future outbreaks similar to COVID-19 harming livelihoods and economies around the world.”
On Twitter, we addressed some of the major wildlife-related myths out there about COVID-19.
March 2, 2020
Reminder of The Berlin Principles – A One Health approach — Issued on Oct. 22, 2019
As the world focuses on the zoonotic COVID-19 outbreak, we are bringing focus back to the Oct. 22, 2019, release of The Berlin Principles, which are an urgent call to governments, academia, and civil society that all sectors need to break down barriers to ensure a united effort to prevent the emergence or resurgence of diseases that threaten humans, wildlife, and livestock.
The Berlin Principles were developed and issued at the "One Planet, One Health, One Future" conference organized by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the German Federal Foreign Office. The conference included the top minds from around the globe addressing how human development and interference on nature are generating threats affecting all life on Earth.
“But there is a huge trade in wildlife that is not related to consumption.”
February 26, 2020
STATEMENT: A critical and positive step but other forms of trade should be added
“WCS welcomes this critical and positive step that reflects the Chinese central government’s commitment for not only solving the COVID-19 outbreak but in preventing future risks through legislative reform and improved enforcement and management.
“There is no such risk-free trade and consumption of any wild mammals and birds whether they are wild-caught or farmed. WCS believes that only by prohibiting the live trade in all wild birds and mammals can the risk of future viral emergences be prevented, and thus other forms of trade should also be included in this ban.
“In addition, this creates a potential loophole for traffickers who may exploit the non-food exemptions to sell or trade live wildlife, creating additional challenges to law enforcement officers.”
STATEMENT: WCS applauds China for revising and strengthening wildlife protection laws
“Preventing future zoonotic outbreaks is not about targeting one species—like pangolins, bats and snakes—but taking strong actions to ban wet markets trading in wildlife and broadly strengthening wildlife laws and regulations," said WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer. "We applaud The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China for declaring on Monday that it is revising wildlife protection laws, in order to strengthen the fight to end indiscriminate hunting and consumption of wild animals."
What is the Wildlife Conservation Society's main message concerning the COVID-19 coronavirus?
As Dr. Walzer states in the video above, WCS is asking China and others governments to close live animal markets that trade in wild animals—whether these animals come from the wild or whether they are farmed-wildlife. There are three clear steps we are advocating for to prevent the spread of similar zoonotic diseases: close live animal markets that sell wildlife; strengthen efforts to combat trafficking of wild animals within countries and across borders; and work to change dangerous wildlife consumption behaviors, especially in cities.
Won’t closing these markets hurt the poor?
No. Wildlife populations are being depleted as they are poached and hunted. Viral outbreaks lead to mass culling of domestic animals, which increases the cost of basic animal protein, hitting the poor the hardest.
Why do we suspect the COVID-19 coronavirus is a spill-over from animals to humans?
Scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control have confirmed a live animal market teeming with a multitude of wildlife species as the origin of the COVID-19 coronavirus. Dr. Zhong Nanshan, director of the China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, who became famous for leading the fight against SARS 17 years ago, pinpointed on Chinese state television the likely source of the new coronavirus as wildlife. Environmental samples from the Wuhan market have been linked to wildlife.
Why are these live animal markets that sell animals for food such a problem?
It is hard to design more perfect conditions for new viruses to emerge than market systems such as that in Wuhan: Tightly pack together a variety of species from around the country or the world and transport them long distances directly into large markets. Ensure that these massively stressed and immuno-compromised wild animals are in close proximity to domestic and farmed animals. Then distribute these animals out to major urban populations for consumption.
What action has the Chinese government taken about these markets with this outbreak?
The Chinese government is to be applauded for acting quickly, as three government agencies took the first step, announcing a nationwide ban prohibiting all wild animal trading activities with immediate effect. This includes not only wet markets, but supermarkets restaurants and e-commerce platforms. The announcement also stated that “any violation of the provisions of this announcement shall be investigated and dealt with severely in accordance with the law and regulations”. However, this is not enough, as the ban currently only covers the period until “the epidemic situation is lifted nationwide”. It must be permanent.
Is it a common occurrence for viruses to be transmitted from animals to humans?
The resulting re-assortment and exchange of viral components between species at live animal markets is a major source of new viruses. These can be zoonotic, i.e., transmitted from animals to humans (e.g., Avian Influenza, SARS, MERS), and subsequently successfully mutate so that they can transmit between humans, creating the conditions for a rapid global pandemic.
Are there markets like this outside of China?
Similar markets occur in cities across other Asian countries and if these persist, and human consumption of wildlife goes on, then we will continue to face heightened risks from emerging new viruses, potentially more lethal.
What do the people in China and Chinese media think about closing these markets?
A large and growing number of people in China support closing these markets. On Chinese social media, support for the issue has been among the highest trending topics on Weibo (China’s most popular microblog site) over the last week, with the hashtag “#The Source of the New Coronavirus is Wild Animals” viewed 1.2 billion times. The hashtag "#National Wildlife Trading Is Banned Until the Epidemic is Over” has amassed 400 million views over 24 hours since it was announced, and the view of Chinese netizens is clear: “It should be permanently banned. Do you want to have another epidemic?,” “Reject wild meat, ban forever and punish offenders severely,” “It is for the sake of human life, health, safety, and maintenance of natural harmony that wildlife trading activities should be permanently banned from now on.”
Not only that. State media and academics agree. The China Daily recently headlined, “It’s Time to Permanently Ban Wildlife Trade” and Sina News, “It’s Time to Ban Wild Animal Trading.” While a group of senior Chinese academics, including the former president of Peking University and Dr. Shi Zhengli of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academic of Science (who is one of the scientists who identified bats as the original carrier of SARs), have publicly called on China’s National People’s Congress to end the illegal trade and consumption of wild animals by issuing emergency legislation integrating public health and safety concerns into the wildlife protection law.
Where can I read more about the spill-over from animals to humans in connection to the COVID-19 coronavirus?
STATEMENT: Chinese ban on wildlife markets needs to be permanent
“The Chinese government’s announcement today to temporarily ban the sale of wildlife in markets, restaurants and over e-commerce needs to be permanent," said WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer. "We congratulate the government for taking this important first step."
“The banning of such sales will help end the possibility of future outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, such as the COVID-19 coronavirus. We learned this lesson with the outbreak of another zoonotic disease, SARS, in 2002. The pattern will keep repeating itself until we ban, not only in China, but in other countries, the sale of wildlife, specifically for food and in food markets."
The Guardian: Calls for global ban on wild animal markets
Wild animal markets must be banned worldwide, say experts in and outside China, warning that the sale of sometimes endangered species for human consumption is the cause both of the new coronavirus outbreak and other past epidemics.
The Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, which has been closed down as the source of the infection, had a wild animal section, where live and slaughtered species were on sale. An inventory list at the Da Zhong domestic and wild animals shop inside the market includes live wolf pups, golden cicadas, scorpions, bamboo rats, squirrels, foxes, civets, hedgehogs (probably porcupines), salamanders, turtles and crocodiles. In addition, it offered assorted parts of some animals, such as crocodile tail, belly, tongue and intestines.
January 22, 2020
STATEMENT: Close live animal markets that trade in wildlife
“Governments must recognize the global public health threats of zoonotic diseases," said WCS's Dr. Christian Walzer. "It is time to close live animal markets that trade in wildlife, strengthen efforts to combat trafficking of wild animals, and work to change dangerous wildlife consumption behaviors, especially in cities. It is essential to invest resources not only into discovering new viruses but more importantly in determining the epidemiological drivers of zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of infectious diseases."